02 Sep

Cognitive Functions with the Speed of Vision!

Many things we do every day require our eyesight. There are several groups of eyes, however, human eyes are referred to as camera eyes. If you think of the structure of a camera, the integral part of it is the lens which projects light onto film. It’s a similar process with our eyes. In the structure of a human eye, there is a cornea which projects light onto the retina.

Outer Eye Structure

There are three tissue layers in the eye. The deepest layer is the retina, the outlying layer is the sclera, and the middle layer is the choroid.

The sclera is the white color you see in the areas surrounding the iris. The choroid contains blood vessels which provide the retina with oxygen and nutrients.

The cornea is located at the front of the eye. The iris, a circular colored membrane, is directly behind the cornea which has the pupil in the center of it. There is a transparent liquid called aqueous humor which is found between the cornea and iris.

The pupil, located in the iris, expands and contracts to control and adjust the incoming light. Behind the pupil is a crystalline lens.

Inner Eye Structure

There are muscles surrounding the crystalline lens which are called ciliary muscles. When the muscles relax, the lens flattens resulting in the vision of faraway objects. When the muscles contract, the vision of closer objects occurs.

The tissue inside the eye is called the vitreous humor. After the light has penetrated the crystalline lens, it travels through this humor before reaching the blind spot, the retina.

The light-sensitive cells found in the retina are called rods and cones. The rods are used to see monochrome colors in the poor light. The cones are used for bright colors and fine details. The cones are located in the fovea, behind the retina, for sharper vision.

When light travels to the cones or rods, signals are sent to the brain through the optic nerve. This is what the brain uses to translate what we visually recognize. What would we do without the power of our eyesight? We can see everything in the world and accomplish more than the eye can see!

31 Aug

Save Your Brain With Key Research from Neuroscience

Neuroscience is the study of a science which involves the human body’s nervous system. Scientists are eager to learn how the system works and develops, how it malfunctions, and how to repair it. The subjects of study which make up neuroscience include physiology, anatomy, molecular biology, cytology, mathematics, and psychology. All aid in the understanding of learning, memory, behavior, perception, and consciousness.

Further Cognitive Studies

Several other disciplines of neuroscience can be studied. These include but are not limited to neuroeducation, neuroethics, as well as neurolaw. Various specializations of the science include psychiatry, neurology, and anesthesiology.

Psychiatry is the study of cognitive disorders. Neurology is the study of diseases which affect the central nervous system. Anesthesiology is the study of pain perception.

Several organizational forums exist today to accommodate the influx of neuroscientists. Two of which are the International Brain Research Organization and the European Brain and Behavior Sounded. A majority of these organizations were founded in the 60s.

Cognitive Neuroscience

This is the study of psychological functions caused by neural circuitry. The techniques used in the field of work include neuroimaging, electrophysiology, human genetic analysis, and many others.

A Neurological Disorder

Elderly people are prone to a neurological disorder, the stroke. This disorder has serious side effects on a person who survives it. The side effects include damaged visual, audio, and touch senses. Three of the basic human senses.

The Damage is Done

When a stroke occurs, it affects the brain in a very damaging way. For example, if the right side of the brain is damaged as a result of the stroke, this affects the left side of the person’s body. This could include reduced eyesight and hearing levels or the loss of feeling of the affected side of the body.

A Stroke of Luck

A newly developed technique by neuropsychologists, Optokinetic Stimulation Therapy, is a way which aids in the recovery and repair of visual and auditory damage. This type of therapy trains and improves the two of the severely damaged senses. After several therapy sessions, stroke patients are able to recover faster while in rehabilitation facilities.

Keep learning about the brain. It could save your life!

14 Aug

How Audiovisual Integration Affects Cognitive Behavior

Humans have various different sensory organs but the five basic senses are sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. We are able to function on a day-to-day basis primarily because of these five senses.

Senses and Sensory Organs


Seeing anything happens when the brain is stimulated visually thus recognizing what our eyes see.


The brain is able to interpret sounds through our ears.


We have 400 smelling receptors which communicate with our brains to ascertain what it is we smell.


A majority of our taste buds are located on our tongues. The taste buds can differentiate between five tastes – salty, sweet, sour, bitter, and savory.


We feel everything through our skin. The particular neurons, which correspond with the brain, interprets the sensations we feel.

Cognitive Behavior

Studies published in The Journal of Neuroscience were conducted to see the timing of cognitive reactions in different parts of the brain. This was achieved through the synchronized stimulation of audiovisual, auditory, and visual incitements.

Audiovisual Stimulation

This is used by provoking the central nervous system using certain audio and visual signals. Audiovisual stimulation has been used in several forms of therapy to treat ADD, dementia, emotional disorders, sleep disorders, and many more.

Auditory Stimulation

By using specific sounds, this creates a reaction between the brain and the nervous system. It has been an effective treatment therapy for those suffering from autism, ADD, deafness, and blindness.

Deaf patients have been found to acquire an increased ability to process different sounds. Autistic patients who have been exposed to a therapy called Snoezelen Multi-Sensory Environment Therapy experience greater relaxation and learning processes.

Visual Stimulation

The retina in our eyes is responsible for visual recognition. Stimulation such as using positive images to create reactions is because the retina receives light from the images. It converts it into neural signals sent to the brain, thus resulting in the recognition of whatever it is we are looking at.

We have our eyes to see things, ears to hear sounds, a nose to smell, skin to feel sensations of touch, and our tongues to taste. Our sensory organs affect our cognitive behaviors as each sense affects our thoughts, feelings, and decision-making.